Monday, March 7, 2011

DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
In simple terms, DHCP determines if your IP is static or dynamic and the length of time an IP address is assigned.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is controlled by a DHCP server. Your router can be a DHCP server...and if you're on a home network, it most likely serves this purpose.
I know this might be confusing because the word dynamic is in the term, but just because you have DHCP enabled on your computer doesn't mean you can't be assigned a static IP. DHCP enabled on your computer simply means you're letting a DHCP server assign its IP. Having it enabled DOES NOT mean it's a DHCP server.

A true DHCP server (not your Linksys router) gives the LAN Admin a ton of control with IP assigning.
Ever print to a network printer? Ever wonder how that printer keeps its network assignment? Each network device has a MAC address. You can assign a static IP at the server to a specific MAC address. This allows the network printer to always get the same IP even after it reboots and without assigning the IP at the printer. If you print the network configuration at the printer, it will probably tell you that DHCP is enabled and no static IP is assigned. That's because the IP assignment is handled at the server.

Your ISP has a DHCP server. They can assign IPs by modem MAC addresses. When your modem comes online, it communicates to the network indicating it is looking for an IP address. The DHCP server listens to this communication and starts talking to the modem. The modem then transmits its MAC address to the DHCP server. At that point, either an IP has been reserved for the modem or one is assigned at that time. Hence cloning your MAC address to get a new IP from your ISP.

Routers and DHCP - Under the General Setup or LAN Setup tab in your router, you'll see a settings option for DHCP. You can control how many IPs are assigned or to enable/disable the DHCP server portion of the router. If you disable it, you'll have to statically assign IPs to each computer, or have a DHCP server or your network. This goes for wired and wireless. Any connection on your network has an IP address.
There's a lot more to DHCP than this, but this is a basic explanation.

Dynamic IP Address

Dynamic IP Address: One that is not static and could change at any time. This type is issued to you from a pool of addresses allocated by your ISP or DHCP Server. This is for a large number of customers that do not require the same address all the time for a variety of reasons. Your computer will automatically get this number as it logs on to the network and saves you the trouble of having to know details regarding the specific network configurations. This number can be assigned to anyone using a dial-up connection, Wireless and High Speed Internet connections. If you need to run your own email server or web server, it would be best to have a static IP address.

Static IP Address

Static IP Address: One that is fixed and never changes. This is in contrast to a dynamic IP address which may change at any time. Most ISP's can offer to assign a single static IP or a block of static IP's for a few extra bucks a month and may require you upgrading to a business account.

Saturday, March 5, 2011

What is IP Address?

This number is an exclusive number all information technology devices (printers, routers, modems, et al) use which identifies and allows them the ability to communicate with each other on a computer network. There is a standard of communication which is called an Internet Protocol standard. In laymans terms it is the same as your home address. In order for you to receive snail mail at home the sending party must have your correct mailing address (IP address) in your town (network) or you do not receive bills, pizza coupons or your tax refund. The same is true for all equipment on the internet. Without this specific address, information cannot be received. IP addresses may either be assigned permanently for an Email server/Business server or a permanent home resident or temporarily, from a pool of available addresses (first come first serve) from your Internet Service Provider. A permanent number may not be available in all areas and may cost extra so be sure to ask your ISP.

Friday, March 4, 2011

Seeds, Peers and Leechers

Seeds : A seeder is a peer that has an entire copy of the torrent and offers it for upload. The more seeders there are, the better the chances of getting a higher download speed. If the seeder seeds the whole copy of the download, they should get faster downloads.

- In Short, Seeders are that the downloading of particular torrent is uploading for another client system who want to download it.

Peers : A peer is one instance of a BitTorrent client running on a computer on the Internet to which other clients connect and transfer data. Usually a peer does not have the complete file, but only parts of it. However, in the colloquial definition, "peer" can be used to refer to any participant in the swarm (in this case, it's synonymous with "client").

It Means, total users who are downloads the particular torrent.

Leechers :
A leech is a term with two meanings. Usually it is used to refer a peer who has a negative effect on the swarm by having a very poor share ratio (downloading much more than they upload). Most leeches are users on asymmetric internet connections and do not leave their BitTorrent client open to seed the file after their download has completed. However, some leeches intentionally avoid uploading by using modified clients or excessively limiting their upload speed.
The often used second meaning of leech is synonymous with downloader (see above): used simply to describe a peer or any client that does not have 100% of the data. This alternative meaning was mainly introduced by most BitTorrent tracker sites.

- It Means, The Persons who are only downloading, they do not uploading for other users.
--> Seeders mean : Number of people are uploading there download for another users.
--> Peers mean : Number of people are downloading and as well as uploading.
--> Leech : Number of people are only downloading.. Not Uploading..

Thursday, March 3, 2011

How you connect the multiple cpu with one monitor

Practical consideration You need a switch will connect that I have connect the ATEN CS64U switch with 4 cpu &operate with one monitor - Switch description

4-Port USB KVM Switch

CS64U 4-Port USB KVM Switch has a handy design integrating with 6 feet of cables and built-in USB. It can control 4 servers via a single console.

2 Features

- One USB console controls 4 computers

- Compact design,built in 1.8 m cables

- Hotkey selection for OS and keyboard language

- Multiplatform support:compatible with all operation platforms PC(Windows,Linux and most others),Mac and Sun

- Multi-use USB connector-can connect any USB device, including mouse

- Supports multimedia USB keyboards and multi-function mice

- All-in-one design

- With speaker support

- Superior video quality - up to 2078 x 1536;DDC2B

- Auto Scan function to monitor computer operation

Oprating system file

FAT(File Allocation Table) A file system that is used by MS-DOS and other Windows-based operating systems to organize and manage files. The file allocation table (FAT) is a data structure that Windows creates when you format a volume by using the FAT or FAT32 file systems. Windows stores information about each file in the FAT so that it can retrieve the file later.


A derivative of the FAT file system. FAT32 supports smaller cluster sizes and larger volumes than FAT, which results in more efficient space allocation on FAT32 volumes. See also: File Allocation Table (FAT),NTFS File System,Volume


NTFS File System An advanced file system that provides performance, security (i.e.,file and folder permissions), reliability, and advanced features that are not found in any version of FAT. For example, NTFS guarantees volume consistency by using standard transaction logging and recovery techniques. If a system fails, NTFS uses its log file and checkpoint information to restore the consistency of the file system. In Windows 2000 and Windows XP, NTFS also provides advanced features such as encryption, Reparse points, Sparse files, USN Journal, and disk quotas.

See also: FAT32, File Allocation Table (FAT), File System

General Information:

File System In an operating system, the file system is the overall structure in which files are named, stored, and organized. NTFS, FAT, and FAT32 are types of file systems. See also: NTFS File System, FAT, FAT32, FAT64 and many more…….

Logical Partition Logical partitions are those partitions contained within an extended partition. In terms of use they are no different than a non-extended primary partition. The number of logical drives that may be created in extended partition is limited by the number of available disk drive letters………….